Designed and built by Robert Stevenson between 1807 and 1810, the Bell Rock is one of the engineering wonders of the Industrial Age.
Prior to its construction an average of six vessels were shipwrecked per year in that area, but the loss of HMS York in 1804 spurred the project. Such is construction quality that none of the masonry has been replaced in 200 years. The project faced great difficulties with the tide allowing only a handful of working hours per day, with the workers living on site during the construction season, first on a boat and then in a barracks built on the founds. It is built on a reef 11 miles offshore, using interlocking stones and featured alternating red and white rotating lights, a new feature.